The Pacific and Beyond
- PUBLISHED: May 2002
- SUBJECT LISTING: Environmental Studies
- BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: 568 Pages, 8.5 x 11 in
- ISBN: 9780295982397
- Publisher: University of Washington Press
From a study of knowledge of the sea among indigenous cultures in the South Seas to inquiries into the subject of sea monsters, from studies of Pacific currents to descriptions of ocean-going research vessels, the sixty-three essays presented here reflect the scientific complexity and richness of social relationships that characterize ocean-ographic history. Based on papers presented at the Fifth International Congress on the History of Oceanography held at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (the first ICHO meeting following the cessation of the Cold War), the volume features an unusual breadth of contributions. Oceanography itself involves the full spectrum of physical, biological, and earth sciences in their formal, empirical, and applied manifestations. The contributors to Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond undertake the interdisciplinary task of telling the story of oceanography’s past, drawing on diverse methodologies. Their essays explore the concepts, techniques, and technologies of oceanography, as well as the social, economic, and institutional determinants of oceanographic history. Although focused on the Pacific, the geographic range of subjects is global and includes Micronesia, East Africa, and Antarctica; the bathymetric range comprises inshore fisheries, coral reefs, and the "azoic zone." The seventy-one contributors represent every continent of the globe except Antarctica, bringing together material on the history of oceanography never before published.
Authors & Contributors
Keith R. Benson is professor of history at the University of Washington. Philip F. Rehbock was professor of history at the University of Hawaii.
Introduction--Philip F. Rehbock and Keith R. Benson 1. The Scripps Heritage Scripps Benefactions: The Role of the Scripps Family in the Founding of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography--Deborah Day Charles Kofoid's Role in Establishing the Scripps Institution of Oceanography--Fred Noel Spiess Contexts for Constructing an Ocean Science: The Career of Harald Ulrik Sverdrup (1888-1957)--Robert Marc Friedman 2. Pacific Remembrances The Sverdrup Years: A Personal Recollection--Walter H. Munk Deep Sea Drilling: Lessons Learned--William A. Nierenberg The NORPAC Expedition--Joseph L. Reid The Development of Research Vessel Design--George G. Shor, Jr. Reflections on My Knowledge in the Indo-Pacific--Klaus Wyrtki 3. Myth and Natural Knowledge of the Sea Sea Monsters: Myth or Genuine Relic of the Past--Sherrie Lyons Suggestions for Study of the Native Knowledge of Marine Animals in the Eastern Carolina Islands--Alan Eugene Davis 4. Exploration: The Pacific and Beyond The Western Boundary Current in the Pacific: The Development of Our Oceanographic Knowledge--Joyce E. Jones and Ian S. F. Jones Russian Oceanographic Investigations of the Pacific Ocean: History and Some Results--Arkady V. Alekseev and Igor D. Rostov Research Vessel Vityaz: A Contribution to Oceanographic Science in the Past and Present--Svetlana G. Sivkova Germania in Pacifico: Humboldt, Chamisso and Other Early German Contributors to Pacific Research, 1741-1876--Gerhard Kortum The Aspirations of Alfred Merz, Georg Wust, and Albert Defant: From Berlin to Pacific Oceanography--Walter Lenz Some Aspects of Early Twentieth-Century Oceanography: The German Antarctic Expedition--Maurice M. Raraty Early Exploratory Voyages and Antarctic Expeditions: The Argentine Perspective--Ramiro P. Sanchez History of Marine Science in Chile--Tarsicio Antezana and Nibaldo Bahamonde The History of Oceanography along the Mexican Pacific Coast--Richard A. Schwartzlose and Saul Alvarez-Borrego The Oceanographic Work of Captain Scott's Discovery, 1901-31--Ann Savours Investigations of the Humboldt Current following a Long Series of Misadventures: The Voyage of the William Scoresby, 1931--Roalind Rolf and Gunther Marsden The Danish Dana Expedition, 1928-30: Purpose and Accomplishments, Mainly in the Indo-Pacific--Torben Wolff Italian Contributions to the Knowledge of the Southeast Pacific Ocean--Noberto della Croce Deep-Sea Plankton Exploration in Historical Perspective--Baruch Kimor The Educational Mission of Marine Sciences: A Case Study of East Africa, the Early Initiatives, 1930-80--Selim Morcos School and Popular Marine Science Education in the United Kingdom--J. Malcolm Walker 5. Pioneers of Ocean Science Anders Sparrman, 1748-1820--David Dyrssen The Discovery of the Deep-Sea Atlantic Fauna--Luiz Saldanha George Wallace Melville: His Influence Through Polor Exploration and Marine Engineering--A. Aristides Yayanos Claude Zobell, Hadal Bacteria, and the "Azoic Zone"--Donald J. McGraw The Pioneers of Oceanographic Research in Romania--G. Serpoinau and V. Malciu Romanian Developmental Contributions of Emil Racovitza and Grigore Antipa to the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean--Alexandru S. Bologa and Alexandru Marinescu Four Centuries of Physical Oceanography in Croatia--Mirko Orlic 6. North American Oceanography and Marine Biology Four Men and an Albatross: The Growth of American Oceanography, 1882-1921--Larry T. Spencer Marine Biology or Oceanography: Early American Developments in Marine Science on the West Coast--Keith R. Benson Pacific Waters and the POG: The Origin of Physical Oceanography on the West Coast of Canada--Eric L. Mills The Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions (1931-1962) and Their Contributions to Marine Biology--Anwar Abdel Aleem Selling Bellevue: The Emergence of American Naval Oceanography--Gary E. Weir Marine Biology/Biological Oceanography and the Federal Patrol: The NSF Initiative in Biological Oceanography in the 1960s--Toby A. Appel Challenges and Opportunities in Naval Oceanography in the Post Cold War World--Timothy Coffey Oceanography: The Next Fifty Years--John A. Knauss 7. Technique and Technology Swedish Oceanographic Instruments up to 1950--Artur Svansson The History of Chemical Determinations of Salinity--William J. Wallace Early Attempts at Dermination of the Salinity of Seawater from Measurement of Its Electric Conductivity--Jens Smed The History of Chemical Oceanography in Australian Waters, 1874-1974--Andrew McTaggart The Role of Spectra in Ocean Wave Physics--David Irvine Submersibles in Oceanographic Research--Bruce H. Robinson 8. Fisheries Science and Management The Uses and Abuses of Scientific Expertise in English Inshore Oyster Fishery, 1860-1910--Gill Parsons History of Fisheries: Science in Japan--Yoshiaki Matsuda One Hundred Years of the Sergestid Shrimp Fishing Industry in Suruga Bay: Development of Administration and Social Policy--Makota Omori Transformation in Fisheries Management: A Study of William C. Herrington--Amy L. Toro Ocean Food and Energy from California Mariculture: An Evaluation of the US Marine Biomass Project, from 1972-1986--Peter Neuschul and Lawrence Badash 9. Coral Reef Research Beyond Darwin: Coral Reef Research in the Twentieth Century--Daphne G. Fautin Caribbean Contributions to Coral Reef Science--Robert A. Kinzie III From Steady State to Stochastic Systems: The Revolution in Coral Reef Biology--Patricia Mather Coral Reefs, Science, and Politics: Relationships and Criteria for Decisions over Two Centuries--A French Case History--Bernard Salvat 10. Plate Tectonics Evolution of the Tectogene Concept, 1930-1965--Alan O. Allwardt The Accreted Terrane Controversy, or Continental Geologists Strike Back--Homer E. LeGrand and William Glen Gravity Surveys in the "Permanent" Ocean Basins: An Instrumental Chink in a Theoretical Suit of Armor--Naomi Oreskes Geological Mapping of the Deep-Ocean off the Hawaiian Islands, Using Sidescan and Swath Sonar Imaging, 1966-1992--J. B. Wilson and W. R. Normark 11. Archival Resources for the History of Oceanography Resources for the Study of Oceanography at the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography--Deborah Day Sources for the History of Oceanography at the Smithsonian Institution at the National Archives--Pamela M. Henson The Stazione Zoologica: A Clearing House for Marine Organisms--Christiane Groeben Index